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Here, the first determinant suggests that the primary key of R could be changed from a,b to a,c.

If this change was done all of the non-key attributes present in R could still be determined, and therefore this change is legal. However, the second determinant indicates that a,d determines b, but a,d could not be the key of R as a,d does not determine all of the non key attributes of R it does not determine c. We would say that the first determinate is a candidate key, but the second determinant is not a candidate key, and thus this relation is not in BCNF but is in 3 rd normal form.

Lets consider the database extract shown above. This depicts a special dieting clinic where the each patient has 4 appointments.

**Database Normalization - Transformation to Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF) - Database Tutorial 6k**

On the first they are weighed, the second they are exercised, the third their fat is removed by surgery, and on the fourth their mouth is stitched closedâ€¦ Not all patients need all four appointments! Appointment 1 is either orappointment 2 orand so on. From this hopefully make-believe scenario we can extract the following determinants:.

Now we have to decide what the primary key of DB is going to be. Consider the case of a simple video library. Each video has a title, director, and serial number. Customers have a name, address, and membership number. Assume only one copy of each video exists in the library.

We are given:. Previous Page. Database Notes.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. In other words, a relation is in BCNF if and only if the left-hand side of every functional dependency is a candidate key. Learn more. Asked 5 years, 11 months ago. Active 1 year, 3 months ago. Viewed 7k times.

I have derived the candidate keys to be AB and BC. Thanks guys! There might be more than one candidate key. You don't choose from them; you identify all of them.

C is not a candidate key in R. Thanks for the correction. Thanks a lot! Active Oldest Votes. You derived the right keys: AB and BC. From a comment by the OP. Use all the candidate keys.

Normalization always considers all the candidate keys. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password.It is a slightly stronger version of the third normal form 3NF. Boyce and Edgar F. Codd to address certain types of anomalies not dealt with by 3NF as originally defined. If a relational schema is in BCNF then all redundancy based on functional dependency has been removed, although other types of redundancy may still exist.

Note that even though in the above table Start time and End time attributes have no duplicate values for each of them, we still have to admit that in some other days two different bookings on court 1 and court 2 could start at the same time or end at the same time.

However, only S 1S 2S 3 and S 4 are candidate keys that is, minimal superkeys for that relation because e. Recall that 2NF prohibits partial functional dependencies of non-prime attributes i. See candidate keys on candidate keys, and that 3NF prohibits transitive functional dependencies of non-prime attributes on candidate keys. In Today's court bookings table, there are no non-prime attributes: that is, all attributes belong to some candidate key.

Therefore the table adheres to both 2NF and 3NF. The table does not adhere to BCNF. Both tables are in BCNF. We assume for simplicity that a single shop cannot be of more than one type. Because all three attributes are prime attributes i. The table is not in BCNF, however, as the Shop type attribute is functionally dependent on a non-superkey: Nearest shop.

The violation of BCNF means that the table is subject to anomalies. For example, Eagle Eye might have its Shop type changed to "Optometrist" on its "Fuller" record while retaining the Shop type "Optician" on its "Davidson" record. Unfortunately, although this design adheres to BCNF, it is unacceptable on different grounds: it allows us to record multiple shops of the same type against the same person.

### CP363 : Boyce-Codd Normal Form

A design that eliminates all of these anomalies but does not conform to BCNF is possible. This design introduces a new normal form, known as Elementary Key Normal Form. The table structure generated by Bernstein's schema generation algorithm [6] is actually EKNF, although that enhancement to 3NF had not been recognized at the time the algorithm was designed:.

It is NP-completegiven a database schema in third normal formto determine whether it violates Boyceâ€”Codd normal form. Since that definition predated Boyce and Codd's own definition by some three years, it seems to me that BCNF ought by rights to be called Heath normal form.

But it isn't. Edgar F. This was the first time the notion of a relational database was published. All work after this, including the Boyceâ€”Codd normal form method was based on this relational model. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

## Normal Forms in DBMS

This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk:Boyceâ€”Codd normal form. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

New York, N. Database System Concepts 6th ed.There is no other key column in each of the tables which determines the functional dependency. Let us consider another example â€” consider each student who has taken major subjects has different advisory lecturers.

Each student will have different advisory lecturers for same Subjects. There exists following relationship, which is violation of BCNF. Below table will have all the anomalies too. Also, if we update subject for any student, his lecturer info also needs to be changed, else it will lead to inconsistency. Hence we need to decompose the table so that eliminates so that it eliminates such relationship.

Now in the new tables below, there are no inter-dependent composite keys moreover, there is no composite key in both the tables. Hence we have eliminated all the anamolies in the database.

Reading Time - 4 mins. Boyce-Codd Normal Form 3. This normal form Meets all the requirement of 3NF Any table is said to be in BCNF, if its candidate keys do not have any partial dependency on the other attributes. Array Interview Questions. Graph Interview Questions. LinkedList Interview Questions. String Interview Questions. Tree Interview Questions.Prerequisite â€” Database normalization and functional dependency concept.

Normalization is the process of minimizing redundancy from a relation or set of relations. Redundancy in relation may cause insertion, deletion and updation anomalies.

So, it helps to minimize the redundancy in relations. Normal forms are used to eliminate or reduce redundancy in database tables.

If a relation contain composite or multi-valued attribute, it violates first normal form or a relation is in first normal form if it does not contain any composite or multi-valued attribute.

A relation is in first normal form if every attribute in that relation is singled valued attribute. Second Normal Form â€” To be in second normal form, a relation must be in first normal form and relation must not contain any partial dependency. Partial Dependency â€” If the proper subset of candidate key determines non-prime attribute, it is called partial dependency. For instance, if there are students taking C1 course, we dont need to store its Fee as for all the records, instead once we can store it in the second table as the course fee for C1 is Third Normal Form â€” A relation is in third normal form, if there is no transitive dependency for non-prime attributes as well as it is in second normal form.

It violates the third normal form. Important Points for solving above type of question. Since E is not a prime attribute, so the relation is not in 3NF.

CD which is a proper subset of a candidate key and it determine E, which is non-prime attribute. So, given relation is also not in 2 NF. So, the highest normal form is 1 NF. It is highly recommended that you practice them. See Quiz on Database Normal Forms for all previous year questions. This article is contributed by Sonal Tuteja. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.

See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above. Attention reader! Writing code in comment? Please use ide. Load Comments.All the decomposition resulted by this algorithm would be in BCNF and they would be lossless however some of the decomposition will preserved the dependencies and rest not.

How to determine Candidate Key using dependency closure. All BCNF decomposition guarantees Lossless decomposition, hence above decomposition is also lossless. Hope now BCNF decomposition would be cleared.

If you have any doubt please feel free to drop your doubts in the comment section below. Like Like. Please refer the step 1 and 2 mentioned above. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Skip to content. Dependency Preservation. Validate if both the decomposition are in BCNF or not. If not re-apply the algorithm on the decomposition that is not in BCNF. BCNF is not a preferred normal form as it does not guarantee for dependency preservation. Thank You.

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Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email.Why do you need all of this normalization stuff? The main goal is to avoid redundancy in your data. Redundancy can lead to various anomalies when you modify your data. Every fact should be stored only once and you should know where to look for each fact. The normalization process brings order to your filing cabinet. You decide to conform to certain rules where each fact is stored.

Nowadays the go-to normal forms are either the Boyce-Codd normal form BCNFwhich we will cover here today, or the third normal form 3NFwhich will be covered later. Yes, there are also the first, second, fourth, fifth normal form. Then you keep repeating the decomposition process until all of your tables are in BCNF.

After sufficient iterations you have a set of tables, each in BCNF, such that the original relation can be reconstructed. We split our relation into two relations:. The example data look like this. We select the values of columns from the original relation and we eliminate the duplicate rows. Are we done? The book title, genre, number of pages table is in BCNF. We have the dependency:.

The table is not in BCNF. Subscribe to our newsletter Join our weekly newsletter to be notified about the latest posts. You may also like. Read more.

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