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University of Chicago Flash Center to perform grueling supernova simulations using millions of hours of supercomputer time. The computing-time allocation will make possible computer simulations that could help scientists tackle the major question vexing cosmologists today: what is the nature of dark energy, a mysterious force that dominates the universe.
The Flash Center specializes in simulations of white dwarf stars. These stars have shrunk to the size of the Earth after having burned most or all of their nuclear fuel. When they explode, astrophysicists refer to them as type Ia supernovae. These supernovae shine so brightly that astrophysicists use them to measure distance in the universe and to study the nature of dark energy. The discovery of dark energy first made news inwhen two groups of scientists who study exploding stars announced that their measurements indicated the existence of a mysterious force that works against gravity and seems to be accelerating the expansion of the universe.
Scientists have identified understanding the properties of dark energy as a science priority. A better understanding of type Ia supernovae also will help advance dark energy research, Lamb said.
Astrophysicists are striving to determine which of four possible processes trigger these supernovae. Different processes will produce different characteristics that astronomers can observe telescopically to help verify their theories. During the next year, the Flash Center team will focus on what it considers the most promising of the four theories, a process they call the gravitationally confined detonation mechanism. Flash Center scientists proposed the existence of this process based on their previous simulations.
In this process, flames ignite at one or a few confined points off-center from the core of the star. A hot bubble forms, grows rapidly, breaks through the surface, then spreads over the entire surface of the star at high velocity.
The flame collides with itself at the opposite end of the star, compressing unburned material in the surface layers to high densities and pressures and detonates. There are only 8, hours in a year, but the Flash Center team will use all 2. Related Photos:. Please click here for print-quality versions. All images courtesy of the University of Chicago Flash Center.
Image 1: During the first tenths of a second after a slightly off-center ignition in a stellar white dwarf, a hot bubble of nuclear ash grows slowly as the nuclear flame burns slowly through the center of the star.
The rings seen at the surface of the star in all of the images are an artifact of the visualization of the simulation, and are not present in the simulation itself.
Image 2: The hot bubble of nuclear ash becomes buoyant and starts to rise toward the surface of the star, much like a hot air balloon rises in the Earth's atmosphere. At the same time, an "aneurysm" begins to appear on the top surface of the bubble.
This feature originates because the boundary between the hot, tenuous material in the bubble and the cold, dense material above it in the surrounding stellar material is unstable, in much the same way that the familiar example of a layer of oil under water is unstable on Earth. Image 3: As the bubble rises through the star, its upward velocity increases due to the stronger gravity away from the center of the star, which makes the bubble more buoyant.
The complexity of the top surface of the bubble continues to increase, due to the action of the heavy-over-light fluid instability. In this snapshot, the bubble has reached the surface of the star and begins to break through. Image 4: The hot bubble has broken through the surface of the star, and the top part of it is spreading rapidly across the surface. The spreading material sweeps up unburnt fuel in the surface layers of the star in a compressed layer at its head, much as a snowplow sweeps up fallen snow.
By about 2 seconds, the spreading material will crash into itself at the opposite point on the surface of the star, further compressing and heating the unburnt material, and possibly initiating a detonation. If the collision does produce a detonation, it will propagate through the star at the sound speed, incinerating it in approximately another seconds.
The entire nuclear burning phase of the explosion is thus over in approximately 3 seconds.
The energy released by nuclear burning is enough to overcome the pull of gravity, so the material in the star freely expands. The nickel produced during the nuclear burning phase decays first to cobalt and then to iron.
These decays emit gamma rays, which heat the expanding envelope of the stellar material, making it glow in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This emitted light makes the supernova visible to astronomers on Earth.The best way to find out if Flashpoint Chicago is right for you is to visit us and experience our campus and culture for yourself.
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We must speak honestly and truthfully to the ugliness of racism that permeates throughout our society today. It may be an uncomfortable conversation for some, but it is an all-too familiar reality for anyone living in this country with black or brown skin.
Hiding from it, ignoring it, or being silent about it will not make it go away. Learn About Student Life. Quick Links. Student Life. Call Us. Visit Us. Get Info. Read More. Michigan Avenue Chicago, Illinois flashpoint. Connect With Us!Flash Center for Computational Science. Related Research Fields. Computational Astrophysics. Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL Department News Department In the News. Current Courses Courses Overview.Billy Idol - Flesh For Fantasy 2009 \
The common thread running through our current and past projects is FLASH, a publicly available multiphysics multiscale simulation code with a wide international user base. Another goal is to ensure that FLASH continues to perform and scale well on the upcoming petascale platforms. The objectives of the Flash HEDP Exascale Co-Design Center are to enable the modeling and simulation of HEDP experiments on exascale computers, allowing scientists to address physical regimes and phenomena currently infeasible in the laboratory.
The emphasis is on predictive capability through higher model fidelity, not higher mesh resolution. Through a rigorously defined co-design structure and process, the Center intends to apply domain research to identify and tune interdependences among the platforms, applied mathematics and computer science.
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Open Job Positions. Department News. Department In the News. Research Faculty. Postdoctoral Researchers. Visiting Scholars.The center is the home of FLASH, a community code with applications in fields ranging from astrophysics to engineering and biology.
The center does more than develop software for simulations, however; it is also a hub for research on high-energy density physics and laboratory astrophysics.
As the center celebrates its 20th anniversary, Petros Tzeferacos, research assistant professor in the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago, will step into the role of director of the center. After serving as director for 15 years, Don Lamb, the Robert A. Department of Energy DOE to jumpstart the development of high-performance physics codes in the national labs and academia. Lamb and the Flash Center were asked by the DOE to enable the code to simulate experiments at this facility, providing researchers with an open tool to design and tune their experiments before executing them with high-energy lasers at NIF and similar labs across the globe.
According to Tzeferacos, the code's applications have continued to expand since then. Tzeferacos was trained as a theoretical astrophysicist and developed a strong interest in applied mathematics while at the University of Turin in Italy.
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He joined the Flash Center in with the dream of studying the origin of cosmic magnetic fields in the lab. For decades, researchers had theorized that a process called 'turbulent dynamo' is responsible for amplifying cosmic magnetic fields to the magnitudes observed today in the universe. Recreating the necessary conditions for turbulent dynamo to work in a laboratory had been a long sought-after and challenging goal until the Flash Center and its collaborators from the University of Oxford began their concerted research effort.
In addition, Flash Center researchers are restructuring the code to take advantage of the new supercomputing platforms that will usher in the exascale computing era. Tzeferacos is excited about the future of the center. FacultyResearch. Flash Center turns 20, welcomes new director. Turbulent dynamo and beyond Tzeferacos was trained as a theoretical astrophysicist and developed a strong interest in applied mathematics while at the University of Turin in Italy.
Please click on the appropriate software version for your operating system. Login is required for software downloads. If you don't have an account, you will be prompted to create an account before your download commences. The Flash Center Software takes advantage of Total Phase's high performance host adapters to maximize programming speed.
Unlike other programmers which can take minutes to program a memory device, the Flash Center Software can program the same device in seconds. There are no images to download to an external programmer - the bytes are sent directly into your target device from the host computer. The Cheetah adapter is able to erase, program, and verify a typical 1 Megabyte flash memory in only 23 seconds. Gang programming is easy with the Flash Center Software.
Users do not need to wait for the next release to have support for their memory chips to be added to the Flash Center Software. If you don't see your memory part on this list, our software allows users to add memory devices to the parts library. Details on how to add additional memory devices can be found in the Flash Center Software User Manual under Section 4. If you have any further questions, please contact sales totalphase. The software is officially supported on bit and bit distributions of Windows 7, 8, 8.
The software has been designed for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 and 5 with kernel 2. Please be aware that there may be significant differences and idiosyncrasies in the way that different distributions of Linux operate. As such, Total Phase may not be able to support your particular distribution of Linux. Support will be offered on a case-by-case basis. The graphical software will run on bit Windows and Linux systems as a bit application.The FLASH code is a publicly available high performance application code which has evolved into a modular, extensible software system from a collection of unconnected legacy codes.
FLASH consists of inter-operable modules that can be combined to generate different applications. The FLASH architecture allows arbitrarily many alternative implementations of its components to co-exist and interchange with each other. A simple and elegant mechanism exists for customization of code functionality without the need to modify the core implementation of the source. A built-in unit test framework combined with regression tests that run nightly on multiple platforms verify the code.
Downloads Code Request : If you are an external user and you are interested in using the FLASH code in your project, you can request access to the code. Download : If you have been through the request process, you can download current and prior versions of the FLASH code here. Contributed code: Find information and download links for other contributed code here Flash Test downloads ; the framework for running unit and regression tests on FLASH, or other codes with similar build process.
Images Movies Links.The conditions should not trouble the 2010 Open Champion who is a brilliant links player, always strikes the ball purely and is a decent scrambler. He looks a bit of value at 67. What can we expect from Erin Hills. Strikers have been the talk of the town so far this season, with Romelu Lukaku, Harry Kane and Alvaro Morata among those blazing a trail. There were glimpses of Palace being more organised against City but in the end they still got stuffed.
Roy will be looking to get this trio of games out the way before his work in keeping Palace safe can begin in earnest. With City scoring goals left, right and centre United know they need another big win to keep pace. To be honest, no one inside the game was overly worried about that sort of stuff but it was in the media a lot and has now been put to bed. Morata is the new guy on the block but he has hit the ground running, while Aguero has being doing it for years now in the Premier League.
Chelsea did the double over City last year and from my experience when that happens you are even more fired up to go back and do well. The Brighton result will have brought Newcastle back down to earth after they picked up a head of steam.
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NFL Week 1 Betting Preview: Chiefs vs. The Patriots enter the 2017 NL season as favorites to win their record-tying sixth Vince Lombardi Tropy at sportsbook. The New England Patriots enter the 2017 NFL season as the prohibitive favorites to win their record-tying sixth Vince Lombardi Trophy at sportsbooks monitored by OddsShark.
However, the NFC has a few top Super Bowl contenders hoping to prevent them from a repeat, with the Seattle Seahawks and Green Bay Packers meeting in a monster Week 1 matchup that could ultimately determine who earns home-field advantage. The Patriots officially kick off the season on Thursday against the Kansas City Chiefs, who many thought could challenge them last season before they lost at home to the Pittsburgh Steelers in the Divisional Round of the playoffs.
This year, New England will have star quarterback Tom Brady from the start, although he will not have top target Julian Edelman to throw to after he suffered a season-ending knee injury in the preseason. Instead, Brady will break in new addition Brandin Cooks, as the Patriots have been bet up to 9-point home favorites over the Chiefs after opening at -7.
In addition, Kansas City will be without running back Spencer Ware due to a season-ending knee injury, and this could be the last year quarterback Alex Smith has to lead the offense with rookie Patrick Mahomes waiting in the wings.